Though many Latter-day Saints will remember Hugh Nibleys remarkable discoveries in ancient documents relating to the Book of Moses story of Enoch that were published nearly fifty years ago, they may not be aware of exciting new findings. (accessed May 24, 2020). Genesis 5:22-23. 3 Enoch 6:1-18 records: It's interesting to note that the angels who encountered Enoch when he arrived in heaven detected the fact that he was a living human being by his scent and were upset about his presence there among the angels until God explained why he chose Enoch to come to heaven without dying first. Angels came among them and told them of the righteousness and wickedness of the world, which caused them to grieve over those who were lost to sin. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2001. The idea of Melchizedek (if not his city with him) being taken up into . Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith. They were then miraculously freed from prison by angels who came from heaven in a brilliant light and were lifted up to dwell in Paradise. See Hebrews 11:16; 12:2224; Revelation 3:12; 21:2; 3 Nephi 20:22; 21:2324; Ether 13:210; Doctrine and Covenants 42:67; 133:56. Media. Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each other. The ritual ascent described in Hebrews was merely a temporary, terrestrial preview of the glory they hoped to eventually share in heaven with Christ. However, N. T. Wright (N. T. Wright, Resurrection of the Son of God, pp. This Enoch was the ancestor of Irad, who was the ancestor of Mehujael, who was the ancestor of Methushael. 10. The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson. (2021, February 8). The painting portrays the biblical character Enoch being taken to heaven by God.He was the son of Jared, the father of Methuselah, and an ancestor of Noah.Enoch was a key figure in the Old Testament who was said to live 365 years before he was taken by God to heaven. "City of Enoch" (December 1994 Friend) Solve this code to figure out why the people in the city of Enoch were so righteous. Gulcsi, Zsuzsanna. 12 Who were separated from the earth, and were received unto myself-a city reserved . [32] Church History Library, MS 2567. [23] H. C. Kee, Testaments, Levi 10:5, p. 792. When these themes are brought together, the following picture begins to emerge: a. 3 (1982): 31132. Stained glass design for the Chapel of the Ascension, Bayswater Road, London. Believed to be originally written in Aramaic in the late 2nd century BCE, the Book of Enoch is attributed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, who was said to have been taken up to heaven by . Scholars give various reasons why Elijah and Enoch (or possibly Moses) will be . 22. I would also note here that Hebrews 6:1318 indicates that the participants were the recipients of promises, or covenants, from God that are associated with the Abrahamic covenant. Of One Heart: The Glory of the City of Enoch. . However, we know from History of the Church that those who are translated are often given ministry assignments, as with Enoch. After he became the father of Methuselah, Enoch walked faithfully with God 300 years and had other sons and daughters. And the righteous and chosen will have arisen from the earth. And when we come to the picture of the actual end in Revelation 2122, we find not ransomed souls making their way to a disembodied heaven but rather the new Jerusalem coming down from heaven to earth, uniting the two in a lasting embrace. Hebrews 9:8. Verse18 indicates that those who have received this covenant have fled in order to take hold upon the hope set before them. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021. May each of us embrace the truth and look upward (JST Genesis 9:22) so that we may be ready for that day is my prayer. The book of 3 Enoch features archangel Metatron (who had originally been the prophet Enoch before becoming an angel in heaven) reflecting on what happened when archangel Haniel came to take him on a trip from Earth to heaven. And we will fall upon their necks, and they shall fall upon our necks, and we will kiss each other. This latter-day city is described in modern scripture in close connection with descriptions of Enochs ancient city (see, for example, Doctrine and Covenants 45:1114). I see them as an attempt to stitch back together isolated truths that had been scattered. Papua New Guinean Saints Rejoice as Ground is Broken for New Temple. Son of Cain (Gen. iv. Translation of 1QHodayota XV:2930 by Newsom in Discoveries in the Judaean Desert XL, 214. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983. Even after Zion was taken off the earth, there were still those taking up residence in the city. It's unclear where the City of Enoch was located. Enter your email to receive updates on our LDS Living content, 2022 LDS Living A Division of Deseret Book Company, 5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About the Three Nephites, The Pearl of Great Price: Verse by Verse Commentary. 16. James R. Davila, Melchizedek: King, Priest, and God, in The Seductiveness of Jewish Myth: Challenge or Response, ed. So I never realized until yesterday that the whole "City of Enoch taken up to heaven" is uniquely mormon. Dramatic [re]enactment of the Sons exaltation (chs. 1, 91-221. Enoch, means--founder; teacher; instructor;. Nibley, Hugh W. The Prophetic Book of Mormon. It provides deep and powerful insights into crucial Restoration doctrines, particularly doctrines relating to the plan of salvation. They are the only ones in recorded history to skip death. The parallels here between the story of the Rechabites and the account of Enochs people in the book of Moses are numerous. They were seven yet onethe unity of angels. But (we experience only) quietness and gladness; and (exhibit) love and affection toward God and each other.7. An individual, often the leader of the group or community, recounts how he has been taken up into heaven to stand in the divine council; b. For example, newly analyzed passages from the Book of Giants confirm the Latter-day Saint account of Enochs gathering of Zion and the eventual ascent of his people to heaven. The palaces surround a deity with two attendants in a thirty-third palace. 2. 17). The people of the City of Enoch were also "of one heart and one mind," united in their belief, and there were "no poor among them" (Moses 7:18). One of the most significant additions to the biblical record in Josephs revelation on Enoch is not only that Enoch was taken up alive into heaven, as the Genesis passage implies, but also that the entire city of Enoch was eventually received up into heaven as well. In chapter 7 of the book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price, Joseph Smith provides us with an extensive account of how Enoch built a city called the City of Holiness, even ZION (Moses 7:19). Linda McCarthy (1947-): The City of Enoch, 2002. Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible. Whitney Hopler is a writer and editor who has covered faith since 1994. . that he might take his place with the host of the holy ones and enter into community with the congregation of the children of heaven (1QHa XI, 2023).24, The second point, regarding the idea that the individual is, while in the heavenly realm, taught the mysteries of heaven, can be seen in columnXII of 1QHodayota. I have loved 1 and 2 Enoch, and since reading your articles, I have loved learning about Manichaeism. We are then told that "Zion, in process of time, was taken up into heaven" (Moses 7:21). This is the connection that the author of Hebrews makesthat Jesuss priesthood is the priesthood of Melchizedek. , And I looked and beheld a tree; and the beauty thereof was far beyond, yea, exceeding of all beauty. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1988. Speaking to a community of Christian believers, the author declares, But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, . What Was the Christmas Star of Bethlehem? Mackie, Heavenly Sanctuary Mysticism, 98. The text goes on to imply that all of the patriarchs were seeking to reach, or return to, a country or a citya heavenly city (Heb. The presence of these themes in a variety of documents leads us to speculate that the concept of communal ascent to heaven was widespread at Qumran. Obviously they were able to preserve some pearls that otherwise had been vaguely remembered but discarded. And I beheld that the tree of life was a representation of the love of God. Vol. 27. During this vision, Enoch also saw the divine destiny of Zion. It's very possible, then, that the citizens of the City of Enoch have ministry assignments of their own and are "ministering angels unto many planets," (History of the Church, 4:210). Thus all the days of Enoch were 365 years. Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 26vols. Later, referring to the publication of the Book of Mormon, the Prophet wrote (J. Smith, Jr. et al., Histories, 1832-1844, History Drafts, 1838Circa 1841, Draft 2, p. 386, emphasis added): It had now come to pass that, Truth had sprung out of the earth; and Righteousness had looked down from Heaven, so we feared not our opponents, knowing that we had both Truth and righteousness on our side. [13] G. W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, 40:89, p. 130. Can an EntireCommunity AscendtoHeaven? 3. (Moses 7:21) Carol Newsom, Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice: A Critical Edition, Harvard Semitic Studies, vol. and Do we see this theme in ancient texts, or is this a complete innovation on the part of Joseph Smith as he sought to unite his followers around an inspiring and unifying goal? Nickelsburg, George W. E., and James C. VanderKam, eds. The Pearl of Great Price: A Verse-by-Verse Commentary. Doctrine and Covenants 110:1: The veil was taken from our minds.See also a phrase added to the end of Genesis 9:26 in theJST: and a veil of darkness shall cover him (S. H. Faulring et al., Original Manuscripts, OT1, p. 118; OT2, p. 632. And my chosen ones I shall make to dwell on it., For a second time in this passage, Moses 7:63 shares similar imagery with Psalm 85and this time 1 Enoch does the same. [1] . This page last updated: September 16, 2022. The Lords oath is made doubly sure by the use of a first-person reference: As I live, even so will I come in the last days, in the days of wickedness and vengeance (Moses 7:60). The author of the epistle treats at length the notion that the followers of Christ, because of his exaltation, are, in like manner, now able to enter the heavenly sanctuary.8 The exact function and use of the epistle have long been debated by scholars. What is the book of Enoch and should it be in the Bible? Hopler, Whitney. Vol. [10] R. D. Draper et al., Commentary, p. 146: Because one of the titles for the Savior is the Righteous (Moses 7:45, 47), this prophesied event may well refer to the coming of the Savior in the latter days, perhaps to the youthful Joseph Smith, thereby anticipating the restoration of the Gospel. Click Here To 'Like' Meridian Magazine on Facebook. Retrieved from For instance, in 4 Ezra13:35 we read:[19] Zion will come and be made manifest to all people,preparedand built, as you saw the mountain carved out without hands. Similarly, 2 Baruch4:23 reads:[20] [I]t is that [city] which will be revealed, with me, that was alreadypreparedfrom the moment that I decided to create Paradise., The nature of the gathering place of Gods elect as a Holy City is described in 1 Enochs Book of the Parables 45:5:[21] And my chosen ones I shall make to dwell on it, but those who commit sin and error will not set foot on it. Jewish tradition also describes a New Jerusalem.[22] According to theTestament of Levi10:5:[23] For the house which the Lord shall choose shall be called Jerusalem, as the book of Enoch the Righteous maintains. This account may be citing1 Enoch90:2829, whichtells of how the old house (that is, the old city of Jerusalem) is removed and replaced with a new house (that is, New Jerusalem). Nickelsburg, George W. E., ed. Although the texts are highly fragmentary, which makes their full content and purpose difficult to establish, they appear to have been designed to take worshippers on a tour through the celestial realms, introducing them to the angelic priesthood and the songs they sing in praise of God, guiding them through the heavenly temple, and depicting a vision of the glorious throne of God. Hebrews 12:22 associates this city with Mount Zion. However, "mountains" and "high places" could also mean sanctuaries or places of worship, not necessarily the location for a city. The Lord told Enoch that His people would be gathered unto a place which I shall prepare.[18]Jewish tradition echoes these words. In his book Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism, Howard Schwartz comments: Archangel Haniel's role as an angel who allows people into various heavenly places may be one of the reasons God chose her to take Enoch into heaven. A city was named after him. In this vision, Enoch saw the rest of the world sink into wickednesses, with Satan holding "a greatchainin his hand, and it veiled the whole face of the earth withdarkness; and he looked up andlaughed, and hisangelsrejoiced" (Moses 7:26). They were trying to ascend to that heavenly community, to attain the paradisiacal home, as Enoch did, and enjoy the glory of living in the presence of God. In columnX, line15, the text reads: But you have made me a banner for the elect of righteousness and an expert interpreter [or mediator of knowledge] of wonderful mysteries.28 Samuel Thomas notes that we see in these texts that the protagonist is called upon to translate or interpret his own experience to those under his tutelage.29, 1QHodayota XII is an example of the fourth motif mentioned, in which the teachers disciples are permitted to ascend to heaven to have a similar experience to that of the teacher. (accessed December 18, 2021). The Pearl of Great Price: A Verse-by-Verse Commentary. Another common element is that of the priesthood, and specifically the priesthood of Melchizedek. Then Cain built a city and named the city Enoch. We can see the parallel here between Enoch and Melchizedek of the Joseph Smith revelations, Jesus in Hebrews, and the leader of the Sabbath Songs: in each the leader gains access to the heavenly temple through his faithfulness and is then able to lead his followers in that same path of ascent. Metzger, Bruce M. The Fourth Book of Ezra. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, edited by James H. Charlesworth. Enoch is taken up to heaven, and is appointed guardian of all the celestial treasures, chief of the archangels, and the . In this passage, the speaker proclaims to God, You have illumined my face for your covenant. [29], Robert Alter, writing of Psalm 85, captures the commonality of spirit with Moses 7:63:[31] This bold metaphor focuses the sense of an era of perfect loving harmony. [17] J. Smith, Jr., Teachings, November 1835, p. 84. God made heaven and earth; at last he will remake both and join them together forever. According toThe Pearl of Great Price: Verse by Verse Commentary, this will not be just a casual meeting, with the "receive them into our bosom" not representing a place, but a form of greeting: "an expected embrace between righteous people that is accompanied by falling on one anothers 'necks' and kissing 'each other.'". Finally, while MCP depicts Mount Sumru with thirty-two or thirty-six palaces at its summit, the plat for the city of Zion prominently featured twenty-four numbered temple sites at its center. [6] Moses 7:61. In Moses 7:62-64, we see that the city of Zion will return to the earth during Christ's millennial reign: Eventually, Enoch and those of the City of Enoch will be reunited with the righteous on the earth. [19] B. M. Metzger, 4 Ezra, 13:35, p. 552, emphasis added. The Book of Giants tradition in the Chinese Manichaica. In Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences, edited by Matthew Goff, Loren T. Stuckenbruck and Enrico Morano. Original drawing prepared at the direction of Joseph Smith, Jr. in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1833 by Frederick G. William and mailed to Edward Partridge and others in Independence, Missouri, in June 1833. Men and angels are to be co-workers in bringing to pass this great work, and Zion is to be prepared, even a new Jerusalem, for the elect that are to be gathered from the four quarters of the earth, and to be established an holy city, for the tabernacle of the Lord shall be with them. Such individual ascent was probably the exception, rather than the rule.22, Alexander goes on to suggest that the leader of this liturgy, much like Enoch, would likely have already made the ascent himself and would thus be qualified to lead his congregation into the celestial realm. She is the author of the book "Wake Up to Wonder.". And it came to pass in his days, that he built a city that was called the City of Holiness, even Zion (Moses 7:13, 17-19). For Joseph Smith, Enoch and his people set the pattern for others to follow. Although the text does not explicitly depict this large company ascending into heaven together with Enoch, it does state that when the kings of the land came to find these thousands of followers of Enoch, they were not found and were thought to be dead.6, Another account that is very similar to the story of Enoch and the City of Zion, but which involves the ascension of a different group, is the early Jewish story entitled The History of the Rechabites. This document tells of a man named Zosimus, who was taken up into Paradise, where he encountered a group of luminous beings called the Blessed Ones. These Blessed Ones, to whom Zosimus also refers as earthly angels, were surprised to see him in their midst and expressed that they did not expect to meet mortals until the end of the world. In the Psalm, the personification of the divine traits is used to create a metaphor of peace and prosperity in the land, whereas in Moses 7:62, it depicts the coming forth of a united testimony from above and below of the Only Begottenspecifically of His resurrection and the resurrection of all men., Latter-day Saint interpreters understand the imagery of Moses 7:62 as referring to the restoration of the Gospel. The Story of Archangel Haniel Taking Enoch to Heaven. He has become a high priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek (NIV). Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983. Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014. I go to prepare a place for you. As Andrew Louth has argued, those Christians who embark on the mystical journey to reach God do so not individually, but as a communityas the body of Christ.17. Translation by Newsom in Discoveries in the Judaean Desert XL, 142. He is taught the heavenly mysteries, often by God himself; c. He is appointed to be a teacher and is called to teach the mysteries to others; d. Those who follow his teachings are then permitted to participate in a heavenly ascent or vision. As we explore ancient Christianity, we can better understand our own beliefs and practices and those of our fellow Christians today. (accessed May 19, 2021). Everything was gone without a trace. Are there any traces of the heavenly ascent of Enochs people in the Book of Giants (BG)? And I said: I desire to behold the things which my father saw. A number of scholars have picked up on the similarity between the Epistle to the Hebrews and a collection of hymns found among the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran and also at the Jewish fortress of Masada. Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. Wright, Nicholas Thomas. The resurrection and the Old Testament: A fresh look in light of recent research. Journal of The Adventist Theological Society 24, no. Enoch (/ i n k / ()) is a biblical figure and patriarch prior to Noah's flood, and the son of Jared and father of Methuselah.He was of the Antediluvian period in the Hebrew Bible.. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2012. The Doctrine and Covenants, Section 38:4. "The Story of Archangel Haniel Taking Enoch to Heaven." Regarding the first, we find in numerous places of 1QHodayota the speaker thanking God for delivering him from suffering and for having raised him to the eternal height, or heavenly realm. All in all, this seems to indicate the purely divine nature of this Manichaean Mount Sumru.[3] In addition, Ksa sees the description of the mountain with its tree-like iconography as resonating with the description of the mountain of God and the Tree of Life in 1 Enoch 25:24:[4], Then I answered himI, Enochand said, concerning all things I wish to know, but especially concerning this tree.. When there was corruption in the earthly temple, peoplesuch as the Qumran community and the early Christianswere striving for the heavenly temple located in the heavenly city. In our day, when stories of scripture figures are often dismissed as fables or ignored altogether, Enochs story and message are more vital and relevant than ever. Klijn, A. F. J. 24. . Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2020. Harold Attridge, Paraenesis in a Homily ( ): The Possible Location of, and Socialization in, the Epistle to the Hebrews, Semeia 50 (1990): 217. Alter, Robert, ed. And the righteous and the chosen will be saved on that day; and the faces of the sinners and the unrighteous they will henceforth not see. Melchizedek, in this account, is the son of Noahs brother, Nir. The meaning of Enoch. "And Enoch beheldangelsdescending out of heaven, bearingtestimonyof the Father and Son; and the Holy Ghost fell on many, and they were caught up by the powers of heaven into Zion" (Moses 7:27). James R. Davila, Exploring the Mystical Background of the Dead Sea Scrolls, in The Oxford Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Declaration of familial relationship between Father and Son (naming ritual)Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee (1:5; 2:1213). Now, Mani was not the prophet of the restoration, and I believe that some of his assumptions or premises are definitely incorrect, but watching him/them attempting to patch back together what had been scattered is very interesting. . There is, perhaps, a comparison that we can make here between the idea that this community has fled and the statement in Moses 7:69, ZION IS FLED. Importantly, the church that can be found in this city on Mount Zion is actually the Church of the Firstborns, plural, in the Greek. In Psalm 85 and 1 Enoch, two divine attributes meet and kiss, whereas in Moses 7:63 it is Enochs city and the Lord Himself that fall upon the necks of the righteous and kiss them, as they would a returning prodigal. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2004. and have ceased to cast down their faces. [28] G. W. E. Nickelsburg et al., 1 Enoch 2, 45:45, p. 148. A. Tvedtnes, Hidden Books; H. W. Nibley, Prophetic, pp. The Resurrection of the Son of God. Although other such accounts that parallel the book of Moses narrative may exist, the remainder of this article will focus not on attempting to identify further parallels of this nature but on highlighting examples in early Jewish and early Christian literature that depict this motif in a different way. When he was 65 years old, Enoch, the seventh patriarch after Adam, was called by God to be a prophet. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985), 2:453, 454, 458. Cf. Fortunately, the scriptures, especially the Pearl of Great Price, provide details about the divine destiny and history of the City of Enoch. And the Spirit said unto me: Believest thou that thy father saw the tree of which he hath spoken? 2 (Syriac Apocalypse of) Baruch. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, edited by James H. Charlesworth. The idea of Melchizedek (if not his city with him) being taken up into heaven is not unknown in the ancient literature. As George Nickelsburg has argued, it is very possible that the Enochic Book of Parables was originally meant to be an oral performance, an idea that he discusses in depth in the second volume of his commentary on 1Enoch, in the section entitled Orality and Performance. George W.E. Nickelsburg and James C. VanderKam, 1Enoch 2: A Commentary on the Book of 1Enoch Chapters 3782 (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2012), 3638. Joseph Smith himself wrote, commenting on the parable of the mustard seed (J. Smith, Jr., To the Elders, p. 227, emphasis added. This is what happened to the City of Enoch. In line25 of columnXII, the speaker makes reference to a group of people who follow him and tells the Lord that these have gathered together for your covenant and that he has examined them. 2 vols. [13] Likewise, as George Mitton observes, the Book of Mormon as a testimony of the risen Lord is equally fitting since the symbol of its coming forth from the earth is reminiscent of the Lords resurrection.[14], Of course, in contrast to some other ancient religions, evidence for an early Israelite belief in a personal resurrection is controversial.